Non-Liturgical and Secular Monophony

• close sacred/secular link, with overlaps
• pure secular entertainment
• mixed performance practice
• non-liturgical relates to Church
• from 500's
• many hymns from 400's on: earliest kind
• flourished 11th-13th C
• replaced in 13th C by secular polyphony

General Characteristics

1.  not well preserved;  notation; education & notation expensive
     bias of what is preserved:  educated and wealthy

2.  melodic style similar to chant, w/ narrow range of a 6th to 8va: conjuct & modal

3.  text setting: syllabic, with short melismas at ends of phrases; penultimate note

4.  forms:  strophic, sequence• types; paired rhyming verses; refrain types (alternating); through composed:  (laments, epic poems)

5.  rhythm:  ??  "wide range";  chant• like melodies w/ textual emphasis; metric pieces more metric;  metric poetry

6.  performance practice:  ??? ;  was it accompanied? if so, improvised:  heterophony, preludes, postlude, drones, bits of organum

7.  Poetry:  runs the gamut; love songs, pastourelles, sex between people of different stations, dawn songs (alba) [more sex],narrative stories, debates (tenso)

8.  Organized by language/country
     latin; troubadours (s. France);
     trouberes (n. France);

Latin Songs

Olin sudor Herculis
• prelude w/ drone
• anti• love theme
• rhymed pairs, of which each stanza has its own rhyme scheme
• refrain

Troubadours, Trouveres

Common Characteristics
more repetition
less sectional
short melismas
shorter phrases
less repetition
some repetition
some text & music is more metric
longer phrases
folk song (secular)
more improvisatory
regular refrrain forms = 2 phrases
chant influenced
poetry more organized and standard than music


• more metric
• serious, more religious
• music moe organized than poetry
• aab:  stollen (a)  and abgesang (b)