Haydns Experimental Style
Taken from Pauly, Music in the Classic Period
Movements flexible in number and type
Written for performance: local abilities and numbers taken into account
Little stylistic distinction between chamber and orchestral music:
"as H. developed a characteristic quartet style, soloistic passages
became rare in his symphonies."
Texture: often contrapuntal canon (some minuets) & fugue (finales of 3, 13, 40)
Folk character, esp. in minuets
Minuet not a fixed form
Winds emphasized in trios vestige of Baroque
No. 26 Gregorian chant (lamentation) used as cantus firmus in several movements.
No. 31 (hunting type) opening bars of the first movement brought back toward the end of the last: Cyclic.
Middle Symphonies (Storm and Stress)
Great number of movements in minor
Large variety of 2nd theme treatments
Possibly distant key relationships between movements
No. 44 (E minor)
No. 49 (F minor) 2nd movement characterized by leaps, syncopation: restlessness.
No. 45 (F-sharp minor) "Farewell Symphony". Monothematic 1st mvmt; new theme in development (in D major) does not return in recap.
Mature Symphonies (from ca. 1780)
Simpler, more concise themes, lending themselves to "Working out" technique
Orchestration full, equivalency: all sections participate in theme presentations
More chromaticism (Mozart influence?) and transitional material
Continued formal experimentation "now reveals mastery"
Large orchestra (London symphonies)
More attention to woodwinds; participation in slow movements
Cellos/trumpets have melodic significance, independent from basses/horns (sometimes)
Deliberate rustic/folk material for broad London audiences
Mediant relationships between sections or movements
Grand, majestic scale: slow intros
longer than in earlier symphs
more musical significance
often thematically related to rest of movement (not always the beginning of fast section)
Related themes, or monothematicism
Thematic development throughout the movement, not just development
Counterpoint sectional rather than continuous
Greater length to balance first mvmt
Much variety in slow-mvmt form: sonata, ternary (B section in minor), simple or double variations, combinations of above
Extension of form & tempo of minuet (toward scherzo)
allegro/molto allegro (not dance tempo)
highly stylized: loss of folk flavor (in some cases)
second A may be re-orchestrated, different dynamics, etc.
Abrupt harmonic shifts and pauses (in London finales)
No. 73: among first to exhibit "Spinning out" technique
No. 82/I: chromatic transition from 1st to 2nd theme
No. 94: sudden ff crash on weak beat in slow movement ("Suprise" symphony)
No. 100: percussion (tri, cym, BD) in finale: Turkish ("Military" symphony); extensive coda (I)
No. 103: slow intro returns just before end of the mvmt.
No. 104/II: heavy, eloquent woodwind participation; chromaticism
Early String Quartets (op. 1-3)
Usually 5 movements (2 minuets)
Simple enough for amateurs
Viola not independant; often follows cello 8ve higher
Minuets simple, retaining dance characteristics
1st violin dominates melodic material (= singer in slow movements)
Middle Quartets (op. 9, 17, 20)
Growing thematic participation in instruments other than 1st vln.
Increased imitation and counterpoint
preparation for independant part-writing of mature style
Op. 9, no. 2, last mvmt: opening theme returns in cello
Op. 20, no. 2 Adagio and no. 5/I: Storm and Stress esp. in rhythm, accents
Op. 20, nos. 2, 5, 6: finales are fugues 4, 2, 3 subjects, respectively
Mozart knew and respected op. 20
Late Quartets (op. 33, 50, 54, 74, 76)
Mature part-writing, requiring 4 equally talented performers
Demonstration of motivic development throughout movement
Greater variety of key relationships between movements and with modulation/tonicization
Increased harmonic variety starting with op. 50
Theme & Variations in slow movements
Term "Scherzo" substituted for "Minuet" in op. 33, but little difference, other than tempo. Not a continued practice.
Motivic development and fragmentation in op. 50, no. 6/I
Last movement op. 54, no. 1: typical "humor" in treatment of main theme
Op. 74, no. 3: keys of mvmts 1 & 2: G minor (ends w/ G major), E major
Op. 74, no. 3/II: expressive and chromatic largo
Op. 76, no. 3: Theme & Var. /accompaniment in last variation chromatic and rhythmically complex